In the world of Medicine and biotechnology, one industry is gaining much importance, i.e., Diagnostic industry. We find an infinite number of tests or diagnosis that take place to gather information on one thing or another. The process is unlimited. The more the tests or diagnosis is done, the more new truths are found. One such test is ELISA test.
Enzyme-linked ImmunoSorbent Assay test
ELISA or Enzyme-linked ImmunoSorbent Assay is a test which is used to identify hormones, peptides, proteins, &antibodies. Also known as Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA), it plays a crucial role in the field of diagnosis.The important factors of an ELISA test are antigen and antibody concentration apart from enzymes and other chemicals used for testing purposes. The scope of usage of ELISA techniques has covered the areas of Toxicology (as a presumptive screening for some extraordinary drugs), Immunology, and Pharmaceutical drugs.
The credit of the success of ELISA techniques has to be given to Doctor Dennis E Bidwell and AlisterVoller for having created it. Their primary objective in creating ELISA technique was to detect different kinds of diseases, such as Malaria, Johne disease, and Chagas’ disease.Studies and Research in Medicine, states that ELISA Test Applications can be used successfully in the following areas:
- Viral tests – Virus tests such as HIV, West Nile Virus and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) tests are conducted using ELISA applications tests by taking a sample of patients. The chances of curability are left to the physician’s advice, but ELISA application tests do their duty of identifying whether that particular virus is available in the sample or not.
- Home Pregnancy tests – Normally pregnancy tests are of two types – urine and blood, where urine and blood samples of the female patient are taken and tested to check the pregnancy. This test mainly concentrates on the hormone level in the female patient. The hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is considered and checked through ELISA application tests.
- Food industry – In any Country, one of the revenue earning industry can be identified as Food Industry. No matter what the situation is, there is always a necessity of food items. To make more profits, malpractices can take place. ELISA Application tests are used to detect various allergies that occur in food items.
- The reasons for the development of these allergies may be due to improper maintenance of food material; contamination of food items; certain climatic conditions. ELISA application test results help in controlling of contamination of food that can cause allergies in initial levels. However, ELISA application tests are also done to the finishing level of food processing. In spite of doing ELISA application tests, there may be a chance of allergy to some individuals due to various reasons.
- Monoclonal antibody screening -A monoclonal antibody identifies a single epitope that allows detection and ensures that the detection is perfect. Differences (if any) in antigen is measured in this sort of screening.
Determination of Antibody concentration – Here, the serum protein level in the sample taken is being tested.